Search for projects with tag "carbon sequestration"
[ID: 373] Collection of air and solid samples to produce a radiocarbon budget and determine the mean transit time of carbon
PI: Carlos A. Sierra
In this project, we will collect air samples inside the forest canopy at different heights to determine the 14C signature of the respired CO2 from the ecosystem in the footprint of the ICOS tower. To determine the source of the 14CO2, we will collect additional samples from vegetation and soils for 14C determination. The overall goal of the project is to obtain an estimate of the mean transit time of carbon; i.e. the time it takes carbon atoms to pass throught the ecosystem, from photosynthesis until respiration.
[ID: 348] Ecosystem genetic experiments
PI: Michael Gundale
The genetic composition of Swedish forests is gradually changing due to the use of tree breeding programs and seedling planting. Many common garden experiments already exist to study how different genotypes grow differently from one another. There is increasing interest in the ecosystem consequences of these growth differences; however, there are almost no existing “stand scale” genetics experiments that allow ecosystem pools (e.g. above and belowground C and N pools) or fluxes (e.g. Gross Primary Production, Net Primary Production, Net Ecosystem Exchange) to be assessed. Thus the goal of this experiment is to provide a comparison of how genetic improvement may influence forest ecosystem properties. The following genetic treatments for comparison at each location: a) a baseline unenhanced wild population, b) a 1st round seed-orchard crop, c) a 3rd round seed-orchard crop, d) a state-of the art mix of full-sib families from the breeding population. These comparisons will allow us to investigate how a gradient of genetic enhancement, including the past, present, and future improvements, impacts ecosystem properties and processes (e.g. carbon sequestration and storage).
[ID: 261] Long-term nitrogen enrichment does not increase microbial phosphorus mobilization in a northern coniferous forest
Summary 1. Nitrogen (N) deposition can enhance carbon (C) capture and storage in northern coniferous forests but it may also enhance the demand for phosphorus (P). While it is well established that long-term N enrichment can decrease decomposition and enhance the accumulation of C in soils, it remains uncertain if a higher demand and acquisition of P influence soil C. 2. We studied microbial phosphorus mobilization and growth within a long-term N enrichment experiment in a Norway spruce forest, where N deposition was simulated by adding 0, 12.5, or 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for 21 yrs (n=12), by incubating microbial ingrowth cores with needles and humus with low and high P content, and with sand with and without mineral apatite P. 3. Long-term N enrichment had no effect on microbial P mobilization in needles and humus and did not enhance the positive effect that apatite had on fungal growth. However, it consistently strengthened the retention of C in the soil by decreasing decomposition of needle and humus, both with low and high P content, and by increasing fungal growth in sand-filled ingrowth cores. Further, we did not find any evidence that higher microbial P mobilization in response to N enrichment affected soil C storage. 4. These results show that long-term N enrichment in relatively young soils dominated by coniferous trees and ectomycorrhizal fungi can have relatively small impact on microbial P mobilization from organic sources and on the potential to mobilize P from minerals, and subsequently that elevated P demand due to N enrichment is unlikely to lead to a reduction in the soil C accumulation rate.
PI: Reimo Lutter
According to the recent estimation for Northern Europe, about 1.8-2.6 M ha of agricultural land is available for afforestation and intensive biomass production (Rytter et al. 2016). However, the long-term effects of different species C sequestration potential are unknown on former agricultural land. For the basis of current project, the growth data was obtained from tree species (hybrid aspen, poplar, birch, spruce, larch and willow) experiments on five former agricultural sites along a latitudinal gradient in Sweden (56° to 64°N). Site index curves were calculated to predict the potential production for each tree species and different long-term scenarios were tested to investigate each species climate benefit potential on former agricultural lands. More detailed information about the experiment: Rytter, L. and Lundmark, T. 2010 Trädslagsförsök med inriktning på biomassaproduktion [Tree species trial with emphasis on biomass production]. Skogforsk, Arbetsrapport no 724, Uppsala, 24 p.
[ID: 120] Biochar management
PI: Michael Gundale
We have set up a replicated (n=6) experiment testing for the effect of biochar addition to soil, and a wide range of properties. The experiment consists of 4 treatments, control, soil mixing, biochar addition, and biochar and mixing. The experiment is set up at Åhedon, near Svartberget field station.