Boreal peatlands provide an important carbon sink and play a key role in the global carbon cycle and climate system. During the past century, >10 million ha of natural peatlands have been drained in the Nordic-Baltic countries with the purpose to increase tree biomass production. Presently, extensive efforts are being undertaken by governmental agencies and forest stakeholders to restore these ecosystems towards their natural state with the aims to enhance conservation values and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from these areas. Despite this high interest and activity level, the empirical knowledge for evaluating the implications on the GHG balance is scarce. As a result, the climate impact of drained and restored peatland areas is currently highly uncertain. This workshop has two main goals: 1) Gather and synthesize the current knowledge on the climate impact of drained and restored peatlands within the Nordic-Baltic domain; 2) Explore the possibilities for synthesis papers and common research proposals.